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BEER JUDGE CERTIFICATION

EXAM STUDY GUIDE

Second Edition: July 1992

First Edition: February 1992

Edited by Chuck Cox (chuck@synchro.com)

In collaboration with JudgeNet

Copyright (c) 1992 by Chuck Cox

Permission is given for non-commercial distribution, provided this document is reproduced in full,

including this copyright notice.

CONTENTS

•INTRODUCTION

•IGNREDIENTS

•Grains

•Hops

•Water

•Yeast & Bacteria

•Miscellaneous

•PROCEDURES & CHEMISTRY

•Malting

•Mashing

•Brewing

•Fermentation & Conditioning

•Bottling / Kegging

•CHARACTERISTICS

•Appearance

•Aroma & Flavor

•Drinkability & Overall Impression

•STYLES

•Ales

•Lagers

•Hybrids

•Miscellaneous

•BEER JUDGE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM

•Judge Ranks

•Experience Points

•Sanctioned Competitions

•BJCP EXAM

•BIBLIOGRAPHY & SUGGESTED READING

•JUDGENET

 

INTRODUCTION

This guide is intended to help identify the specific areas of knowledge that are needed to pass the BJCP

exam. It is not intended to teach you what you need to know to pass the exam, but rather to help you

organize your thoughts and identify topics that deserve further study. The bibliography can help you

locate sources for further information, however there is no substitute for experience.

I would like to encourage you to travel to Europe. A few days of drinking the local beers in the local

taverns and visiting the local breweries will give you invaluable insight.

Numerous JudgeNet subscribers contributed to this study guide, however I would like to specifically

acknowledge the contributions of the following individuals:

Jim Homer (att!drutx!homer)

Mark Stevens (stevens@stsci.edu)

Steve Stroud (stroud%gaia@polaroid.com)

Russ Wigglesworth (Rad_Equipment@RadMac1.ucsf.edu)

A note on spelling: There are no umlauts in the ASCII character set, they are simply dropped in this

document.

This is not an official document of, nor is it endorsed by, the BJCP, AHA or HWBTA. The editor is solely

responsible for its content.

INGREDIENTS

You are expected to understand the purpose and effect of the common beer ingredients. You should know

which ingredients are appropriate for the various beer styles. You should be familiar with geographic

variations in ingredients.

Grains

•Hordeum distichon - 2-row barley

•Hordeum vulgare - 6-row barley

•Triticum aestivum - wheat

•Anatomy - acrospire, embryo, endosperm, husk

•Carbohydrates - starches & sugars

•Tannins

•Proteins & Amino Acids

•Diastatic Power - strength of enzymes - degrees Lintner

•Color - degrees Lovibond

______________________________________________________________________

| degrees degrees |

| type Lovibond Lintner appropriate styles |

|_____________________________________________________________________|

|Low Kilned Malts (approx 175 F) |

| |

| 6-row Lager 1-2 100-200 American lagers, pilsner |

| 2-row Lager 1-2 63-70 lagers |

| Pale Ale 2-3 36 ales |

| Malted Wheat 3 49 wheat beers |

|_____________________________________________________________________|

|High Kilned Malts (approx 220 F) |

| |

| Mild Ale 3-5 33 mild, brown ale |

| Vienna 4 30 dortmunder, helles bock, |

| vienna |

| Munich 6-20 30 munich |

|_____________________________________________________________________|

|Specialty Malts |

| |

| Carapils 1-7 0 light ales, light lagers |

| Crystal/Caramel 10-120 0 ales, lagers |

| Chocolate 300-450 0 dark lagers, dark ales |

| Black (patent) 500-1100 0 dark lagers, dark ales |

|_____________________________________________________________________|

|Adjuncts |

| |

| Roasted Barley 500-1100 0 stout, dunkel |

| Flaked Barley |

| Wheat ales, lagers |

| Corn light ales, light lagers |

| Rice light lagers |

| Oats stout |

|_____________________________________________________________________|

Hops

•Humulus lupulus - cultivated hop

•Anatomy - strobile, strig, bracteole, seed, lupulin gland

•Alpha & Beta Acids

•Essential Oils

•Rhyzome - root cutting

____________________________________________________

| type alpha aroma |

|___________________________________________________|

|English - British ales |

| |

| Brewers Gold 5-9 poor |

| Bullion 6-9 poor |

| Fuggle 4-6 good |

| Goldings 4-6 good |

| Northern Brewer 6-10 fair |

|___________________________________________________|

|American - all styles |

| |

| Aquila 5-8 fair |

| Banner 8-12 fair |

| Cascade 4-7 good |

| Chinook 11-14 fair |

| Cluster 4-8 fair |

| Eroica 10-14 fair |

| Galena 12-15 poor |

| Nugget 12-14 good |

| Willamette 5-7 good |

|___________________________________________________|

|German / Czechoslovakian - continental lagers |

| |

| Hallertauer 3-6 good |

| Hersbrucker 3-6 good |

| Perle 6-11 good |

| Saaz 3-6 good |

| Tettnanger 3-6 good |

|___________________________________________________|

Water

•Gypsum - calcium sulphate - CaSO4

•Table Salt - sodium chloride - NaCl

•Epsom Salt - MgSO4

•Hardness - temporary & permanent

•pH

•Minerals

•Ions

•Calcium

•Magnesium

•Sodium

•Bicarbonate

•Sulfate

•Chloride

Yeast & Bacteria

•Saccharomyces cerevisiae - ale yeast - 50-75 F

•Saccharomyces uvarum - lager yeast - 32-55 F - formerly carlsbergensis

•Saccharomyces delbrueckii - weizen yeast

•Enterobacteriaceae - enteric bacteria - lambic

•Kloeckera apiculata - lambic yeast

•Brettanomyces bruxellensis & lambicus - lambic yeasts

•Pediococcus damnosus - lactic acid bacteria - lambic

•Lactobacillus delbrueckii - lactic acid bacteria - berliner weisse

•Isolating & Culturing

Miscellaneous

•Fermentables

•Malt Extract

•Sugar - corn sugar, honey, molasses, brown sugar

•Fruit

•Clarifying Agents

•Gelatin

•Isinglass

•Irish Moss

•Polyclar

•Herbs & Spices & Flavorings

•Coriander Seed

•Orange Peel

•Ginger

•Cinnamon

•Licorice

•Spruce

•Chocolate

•Coffee

•Smoke

•Malto-Dextrine - adds body

•Caramel - adds color

•Vegetables

 

PROCEDURES & CHEMISTRY

You should be able to describe each procedure, explain its purpose, and describe how it works. You should

be able to discuss how a procedure is varied for different beer styles.

_________________________________________________________________________

| step duration temp (F) comments |

|________________________________________________________________________|

|Malting |

| |

| Steeping 40 hours 60 40-45% moisture content |

| Germination 5 days 60 modification |

| break starches & proteins |

| Stewing 45-60 min 210 crystal malt |

| Kilning 30-35 hours 120-220 |

| Roasting variable 390 dark malts |

|________________________________________________________________________|

|Mashing |

| |

| Milling |

| Mash-in adjust pH 5.0-5.8 |

| calcium sulphate - pH- |

| calcium chloride - pH- |

| calcium carbonate - pH+ |

| Acid Rest 95 pale lager malts |

| phytin => phytic acid |

| Protein Rest 30-45 min 122-131 dark lager malts |

| proteins => amino acids |

| Saccharification 20-60 min 150-158 |

| Gelatinization 149 minimum temperature |

| Beta Amylase 150 slower - less body |

| Alpha Amylase 158 faster - more body |

| Dextrinase |

| Beta Glucanase |

| Mash-out 5 min 168 |

| Sparging 170-180 |

|________________________________________________________________________|

Brewing

•Protein Coagulation - hot break

•Isomerization - hop bitterness extraction

•Caramelization

•Hop Aromatics

•Cooling - cold break

•Degrees of Extract = wort gravity x gallons / pounds of grain

Fermentation & Conditioning

•Pitching - 70-80F

•Respiration - lag phase - aerobic - absorb oxygen & reduce pH

•Fermentation - growth phase - anaerobic - increase population & alcohol

•Sedimentation - stationary phase - flocculation

•Ales - 55-65F

•Lagers - 45-55F

•Nutrients - oxygen, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins

•Products - alcohol, water, CO2

•Attenuation - reduction of gravity

•Autolysis

•Gravity & alcohol measurements

•Starches & dextrines

•Sugars - glucose, maltose, maltotriose, sucrose

•Unusual Systems - burton union, yorkshire stone square, lambic

Bottling / Kegging

•Priming - corn sugar, malt extract

•Krausening

•Artificial Carbonation

CHARACTERISTICS

You should be able to discuss the various characteristics of beer. You should be able to describe what

causes each characteristic, and how to control it with variations in ingredients or procedures.

•Appearance

•Bottle - residue & sediment

•Head - texture & retention

•Color

•Clarity

•Alcohol Legs

•Brussels Lace

•Aroma & Flavor

•Light Struck - skunked

•Hoppiness - fruitiness & bitterness

•Maltiness

•Body

•Carbonation

•Alcohol

•Astringent

•Phenolic - medicinal, bandaid, bubble gum

•Chlorophenol - plastic

•Diacetyl - butter, butterscotch

•DMS - dimethyl sulfide - cooked corn

•Estery - fruity

•Grainy - husky

•Metallic

•Nutty

•Oxidized - stale, papery, cardboardy

•Solvent

•Sour - acidic

•Salty

•Sweet

•Sulphury - yeasty - burton ales

•Acetaldehyde - cidery

•Cooked Vegetable

•Grassy

•Moldy - earthy

•Drinkability and Overall Impression

STYLES

You should be familiar with the overall relationship of the various beer styles. You should be able to

describe the ingredients, procedures and characteristics of each style. You should be able to give

commercial examples of each style.

Examples in parenthesis () are not generally available in the US.

Ales - top fermenting

•German Malted Wheat Ales

•Weizen - Weissbier - South Germany - Paulaner, Hofbrauhaus

•Hefe-weizen - sediment - Spaten Franziskaner, Wurtzburger

•Dunkel-weizen - EKU

•Weizenbock - Schneider Aventinius

•Berliner Weisse - lactic fermentation - Kindl, (Schultheiss)

•Belgian Unmalted Wheat Ales

•Wit - Hoegaarden, Steendonk, Dentergems

•Lambic - spontaneous fermentation - Senne - (Cantillon), Belle-Vue

•Straight

•Fox - young

•Lambic Doux - sweetened

•Vieux Lambic - aged

•Blended - Lindemans, Morte Subite, Timmermans

•Faro - young - sweetened

•Gueuze - St Louis

•Fruit

•Kriek - cherries

•Framboise - raspberries

•Cassis - black currant

•Peche - peaches

•Vigeronne - muscat grapes

•Belgian Ales

•Pale - (De Konnick), Palm

•Saison - Wallonia - (Silly), (Dupont)

•Trappist - monastic - (Westvlerten), (Westmalle), Chimay

•House - single

•Dubbel - double

•Trippel - triple

•Abbey - commercial trappist-style - Corsendonk, Maredsous

•Red - sour - (Rodenbach)

•Flanders Brown Ale - Liefmans Goudenband

•Strong Golden Ales - Duvel, Brigand, (Lucifer)

•Strong Brown Ales - Gouden Carolus, Pauwel kwak

•Biere de Garde - Northern France - 3 Monts, St Leonard

•German Ales

•Alt - Dusseldorf - DAB Dark, Widmer, (Zum Uerige), (Zum Schlussel)

•Kolsch - Koln (Cologne) - Kuppers, (Fruh), (Sion)

•British / American Ales

•Pale Ales

•Bitter - Youngs, Fullers

•Ordinary - (Brakspear)

•Special

•Extra Special

•Scottish Ale - MacAndrews, McEwens/Younger, Belhaven

•Light

•Heavy

•Export

•Classic Pale Ale

•Burton Ale - (Marstons), Bass, (Worthington White Shield)

•American Pale Ale - Gearys, Sierra Nevada, Red Hook

•Stock Ale - Samuel Adams, New England

•India Pale Ale - Anchor Liberty Ale, Ballantine IPA

•Brown Ale

•Mild - Grants Celtic, (Brains), (Adnams)

•Pale

•Dark

•Northern Brown - Newcastle, Sam Smiths Nut Brown

•Southern Brown

•American Brown - Brooklyn Brown

•Porter

•Robust Porter - Sierra Nevada, Anchor

•Brown Porter - Yeungling, Molson

•Stout

•Sweet - lactose - Mackeson, Dragon

•Dry - Guinness, Murphys, Sierra Nevada

•Foreign - Guinness Foreign Extra Stout

•Imperial - Sam Smith, Grants, Conners, (Courage)

•Oatmeal - Sam Smith, Youngs

•Strong Ale

•English Old Ale - Theakstons Old Peculiar,(Marstons Owd Rodger)

•Strong Scotch Ale - Traquair House Ale

•Barleywine - Youngs Old Nick, Sierra Nevada Bigfoot

Lagers - bottom fermenting

•American Lager - Anheuser Busch, Miller, Coors

•Diet Light

•Standard

•Premium

•Dry

•Dark

•American Bock - Shiner, Lone Star, Augsburger

•Malt Liquor - Molson Brador

•Continental Lagers

•Light - Augustiner

•Pilsner

•German - Warsteiner, Becks

•Czechoslovakian / Bohemian / Classic - Urquell, Pavechivich

•Dortmunder / Export - DAB, Dortmunder Union, (Kronen)

•Strong - Carlsberg Elephant

•Vienna / oktoberfest / marzen

•Vienna - Dos Equis

•Marzen / oktoberfest - Spaten, Paulaner, Wurtzburger

•Munich / Bavarian - Spaten, Paulaner

•Helles

•Dunkel

•Schwarzbier - Kulmbacher

•Rauchbier - Kaiserdom

•Bock

•Helles - maibock - Wurtzburger, Ayinger, Capital

•Dunkel - Aass, Upper Canada

•Doppel - Ayinger Celebrator, Paulaner Salvator

•Eis - Kulmbacher

•Hybrids

•Cream Ale - Hudepohl Little King's, Genesee

•Steam - California common beer - Anchor, New England

•Miscellaneous

•American Wheat - Anchor

•Fruit Beers - Sam Adams Cranberry

•Spiced Beers - Anchor Our Special Ale

•Specialty Beers - Vermont Pub & Brewery Smoked Porter

BEER JUDGE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM

You should know how the BJCP is organized and what the requirements are for the various ranks.

•American Homebrewers Association - AHA

•Home Wine and Beer Trade Association - HWBTA

•Beer Judge Certification Program - BJCP

___________________________________________________

|Judge Ranks | exam score experience points |

|_________________|________________________________|

| Recognized | 60 | 0 |

| Certified | 70 | 5 |

| National | 80 | 20 |

| Master | 90 | 40 |

| |_____________|__________________|

| Honorary Master | temporary |

|_________________|________________________________|

_______________________________________________________________________

|Experience Points | small large national |

|_____________________|________________________________________________|

| Steward | 0 | 0.5 | 1 |

| Judge | 0.5 | 1 | 2 - 3 |

| Best of Show | 1 | 2 | 5 - 6

| |_______________|______________|_________________|

| Organizer | 2 - 10 (depending on number of entries) |

| Asst Organizer | 0 - 5 |

| Exam Administration | 0 - 2 |

|_____________________|________________________________________________|

Sanctioned Competitions

•Small Regional: Large Regional: 75+ entries

•National: annual AHA & HWBTA competitions

•Judging Form & Scoring

BJCP EXAM

Questions

The written part of the exam is 10 questions worth 10 points each. This portion of the exam is worth 70%

of your final score. You will have 3 hours to complete the exam.

When you take the exam, be sure to take a couple of mechanical pencils with extra leads (or whatever you

like to write with), a big eraser, and plenty of lined paper (I prefer graph paper).

Here are some example questions:

•Discuss the causes of in beer.

•Describe, relate, and differentiate between .

•What characteristics does the brewmaster expect from , what are the sources of these characteristics

and what are the principle means of extraction.

•Describe, relate, and differentiate between .

•Explain the benefits of .

•Name two beers, describe the style.

•Describe what happens during .

•What is beer?

•Describe the flavor and aroma of , explain its source and indicate a style of beer where it might be

appropriate.

Judging

You will also be asked to judge four beers as a part of the exam. These beers will be presented during the

time you are taking the written portion, spaced about 20 minutes apart. The styles will be identified for

you by the examiner.

Judge these beers as you would for a competition using the AHA score sheet. Be clear and consise in your

comments. Identify any off aromas and flavors you perceive. Suggest possible causes for these problems.

Legibility is also an important factor, if your comments cannot be read they won't convey your

impressions to the brewer or the person grading the exam. 30% of your final score will be determined by

this portion of the exam.

BIBLIOGRAPHY & SUGGESTED READING

American Homebrewers Assoc. Beer and Brewing: conference transcripts. Boulder, CO: AHA, 1985-

1991.

American Homebrewers Assoc. National Competition Rules & Regulations Boulder, CO: AHA,

1992

American Homebrewers Assoc. Zymurgy, special issues. Boulder, CO: AHA, 1985-1991.

Beer Judge Certification Program. BJCP By-Laws Boulder, CO: BJCP

Eckhardt, Fred. The Essentials of Beer Style. Portland, OR: All Brewers Publication Service, 1989.

Fix, George. Principles of Brewing Science. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1989.

Forget, Carl, ed. Dictionary of Beer and Brewing. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1988.

Foster, Terry. Pale Ale. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1990.

Guinard, Jean-Xavier. Lambic. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1990.

Jackson, Michael. The New World Guide to Beer. Philadelphia, PA: Running Press, 1988.

Jackson, Michael. The Simon & Schuster Pocket Guide to Beer. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster,

1991.

Miller, Dave. The Complete Handbook of Homebrewing. Pownal, VT: Garden Way, 1988.

Neve, R.A. Hops. London, UK: Chapman and Hall, 1991.

Noonan, Gregory. Brewing Lager Beer. Boulder, CO: Brewers Publications, 1986.

Papazian, Charlie. The New Complete Joy of Homebrewing. New York, NY: Avon Books, 1991.

JUDGENET

This study guide was proofed, critiqued, and improved by members of JudgeNet: the Beer Judge Mailing

List. This is an Internet electronic mailing list dedicated to the discussion of issues of interest to beer

judges and homebrew competition organizers.

Beer judges with access to the Internet are encouraged to join the list. Send subscription requests,

including your email address, name and judging rank, to judge-request@synchro.com. There are no

questions about JudgeNet on the exam.